Health-Related Development Goals
Despite the multiplicity of policies, goals and targets with regard to health, environment and development, we are still far from achieving their objectives, chiefly because health development focuses more on biomedicine than on broader determinants and inter-sectoral linkages to health. The mainstream system therefore, inadequately recognizes pluralistic approaches. However, with diversity of choice becoming more important, and with academics and the public increasingly concurring that any single system of knowledge cannot solve the mounting problems of humanity (Rai et al., 2010), broad goals and indicators for development are often criticized for their “universal” approach.
The following three of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focus on health and others:
MDG 4 – Reduce child mortality by two-thirds by 2015
MDG 5 – Reduce maternal mortality by 75 per cent
MDG 6 – Tackle HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis
Researchers concur that a primary health care (PHC) approach and the goal of universal health access are essential to achieve MDGs and this should be through appropriate, acceptable and affordable health care (Walley et al., 2008). In line with the key tenets of a PHC approach, this also calls for promoting community and individual self-reliance through a participatory approach and making appropriate use of local resources.